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Author(s):Hanushek, E., Woessmann, L., and Zhang, L.
Title:General education, vocational education, and labor-market outcomes over the life-cycle
Organization:National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)
Short Description:Policy debates about the balance of vocational and general education programs focus on the school-to-work transition. But with rapid technological change, gains in youth employment from vocational education may be offset by less adaptability and thus diminished employment later in life.
Annotation:Policy debates about the balance of vocational and general education programs focus on the school-to-work transition. But with rapid technological change, gains in youth employment from vocational education may be offset by less adaptability and thus diminished employment later in life. To test the main hypothesis that any relative labor-market advantage of vocational education decreases with age, this study employs a difference-in-differences approach that compares employment rates across different ages for people with general and vocational education. Using micro data for 18 countries from the International Adult Literacy Survey, the study finds strong support for the existence of such a trade-off, which is most pronounced in countries emphasizing apprenticeship programs. Results are robust to accounting for ability patterns and to propensity-score matching.
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Associated Keywords:
Educational Attainment/College Degree Completion
Employment and Workforce Development
Social and Economic Benefits of College/Economic Development

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Career development in context: Selected trends in education, economics, labor, and society
Saving futures, saving dollars: The impact of education on crime reduction and earnings
Lifelong learning accounts: Creating a partnership in lifelong learning
Revelations and recommendations: The 2000 HSF Hispanic education study
One day I will make it: A study of adult student persistence in library literacy programs
Liberal education outcomes: A preliminary report on student achievement in college
Latinas in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM)
A synthesis of recommendations for improving U.S. science and mathematics education
Leading by example
How diversity affects teaching and learning
Educational opportunity for all?
PERSIST: A comprehensive guide for student success in higher education
What's wrong with guys?
Is college right for your child?: How to weigh the pros and cons
Indiana's occupational employment outlook to 2012
The path of many journeys: The benefits of higher education for native people and communities
Returning to learning: Adults' success in college is key to America's future
What's at stake? The social and economic benefits of higher education
From the prison track to the college track: Pathways to postsecondary success for out of school youth
Swimming against the tide: The poor in American higher education
To ensure America's future: Building a national opportunity system for adults
Mississippi's mandate: How investment in education pays off in Mississippi
Low educational attainments continue to penalise people in many OECD countries
Whatever it takes: How twelve communities are reconnecting out-of-school youth
Promise abandoned: How policy choices and institutional practices restrict college opportunity
Paying for persistence: Early results of a Louisiana scholarship program for low-income parents attending community college
How do pre-collegiate outreach programs impact college-going among underrepresented students
Paying for college: The rising cost of higher education
A test of leadership: Charting the future of U.S. higher education
From high school to the future: Making hard work pay off: The road to college for students in CPS's academically advanced programs
Background and supporting evidence for Adult Education for Work
Adult education for work: Transforming adult education to build a skilled workforce
Are student employment and academic success linked?
Parental transfers, student achievement, and the labor supply of college students
College enrollment hits an all-time high, fueled by community college surge
The benefits to taxpayers from increases in students' educational attainment
Assets and liabilities, educational expectations, and children's college degree attainment
A matter of degrees: Tomorrow's fastest growing jobs, and why community college graduates will get them
Rising by Degrees
The economic benefits from halving the dropout rate: A boom to businesses in the nation's largest metropolitan areas
2009 What works for Latinos in higher education
Leadership for challenging times: Report of the Commission on presidential leadership and global competitiveness (Executive Summary)
Revving the education engine: Effectively aligning education, workforce, and economic development policy
A penny saved is mobility earned: Advancing economic mobility through savings
Expanding access and opportunity: The impact of the Gates Millennium Scholars program (2010 Update)
The quality imperative: Match ambitious goals for college attainment with an ambitious vision for learning
Promising practices: What works in the midwest: A report from the Wisconsin Center for the Advancement of Postsecondary Education (WISCAPE)
Early-childhood poverty and adult attainment, behavior, and health
Effective college access, persistence and completion programs and strategies for underrepresented student populations: Opportunities for scaling up
Welfare reform and intergenerational mobility
Hispanics, high school dropouts, and the GED
A new paradigm for economic development: How higher education insitutions are working to revitalize their regional and state economies
State R&D and k-12 STEM Education Report Cards
Paving the way through paid internships: A proposal to expand educational and economic opportunities for low-income college students
Graduated success: Sustainable economic opportunity through one- and two-year credentials
Mentoring former prisoners: A guide for re-entry programs
PERSIST (Guide to improve higher education persistence, retention, and success)
Florida policy options to accelerate Latino student success in higher education
Maximizing the potential of older adults: Benefits to state economies and individual well-being
A next social contract for the primary years of education
Pathways to economic mobility: Key indicators
Summer Search
Estimating the social value of higher education: Willingness to pay for community and technical colleges
Young lives on hold: The college dreams of undocumented students
More guidance, better results? Three-year effects of an enhanced student services program at two community colleges
Investing in disadvantaged young children is an economically efficient policy
National studies find TRIO programs effective at increasing college enrollment and graduation
Community college transfer and articulation policies: Looking beneath the surface
Educational Attainment in the United States: 2007
Cities in crisis 2009: Closing the graduation gap: Educational and economic conditions in America's largest cities
The Bologna Process for US eyes: Re-learning higher education in the Age of Convergence
Dropouts, diplomas, and dollars: U.S. high schools and the nation's economy
Noncredit enrollment in workforce education: State policies and community college practices
The future workforce of Indiana
Federal access policies and higher education for working adults
The costs of failure factories in American higher education
A model of success: The model institution's for excellence program's successful leadership in STEM education (1995-2007)