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Annotated Bibliography

Author(s):Baum, S., and Steele, P.
Title:Who borrows most? Bachelor's degree recipients with high levels of student debt
Organization:College Board
Short Description:Many discussions of student loan debt are clouded by a failure to distinguish between typical students and the growing minority who borrow amounts and types of loans that are likely to cause them repayment difficulties. This policy brief focuses on the 17% of 2007-08 bachelor’s degree recipients who graduated with more than $30,500 in education debt.
Annotation:Many discussions of student loan debt are clouded by a failure to distinguish between typical students and the growing minority who borrow amounts and types of loans that are likely to cause them repayment difficulties. This policy brief focuses on the 17% of 2007-08 bachelor’s degree recipients who graduated with more than $30,500 in education debt. High debt levels are not necessarily an indicator of repayment problems. Many students with relatively low debt struggle with weak earnings, and we know that failure to complete a degree or certificate program is the most consistent predictor of student loan default. Some individuals with high debt levels, particularly those with advanced degrees, have high enough earnings to support that debt, but others do face severe hardships. The study of these populations deserves future study. Our examination of the characteristics of the undergraduate students whose debt levels are largest highlights one category of borrowers who may be at risk. The data in this report describe the prevalence of high debt levels among bachelor’s degree recipients by sector, race/ethnicity, dependency status and income. High debt levels are most common in the for-profit sector.
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Associated Keywords:
Borrowing/Student Debt
Financial Aid, Affordability, Tuition, and Costs
Low-Income Students

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Class differences: Online education in the United States, 2010
Dual enrollment: A strategy for educational advancement of all students
Web tables - trends in undergraduate stafford loan borrowing: 1989-90 to 2007-08
Federal Student Aid strategic plan: FY 2011-15
Investing in education and equity: Our nation's best future
Gaining ground: High schools closing the achievement gap
The advanced placement program benefits mainly well-prepared students who pass AP exams
Dollars for degrees: Structuring post-secondary scholarships to increase student success
Getting what we pay for: State community college funding strategies that benefit low-income, lower-skilled students
State high school tests: Exit exams and other assessments
Improving achievement for the growing Latino population is critical to the nation's future
Policy implications of trends for Asian American students
When opportunity knocks, who answers? New evidence on college achievement awards
Filling in the blanks: How information can affect choice in higher education
College choice process of Latino undocumented students: Implications for recruitment and retention
Community college students and grant aid: Bringing equity to the provision of grant aid by states and institutions
Trends in student financing of undergraduate education: Selected years, 1995-96 to 2007-08
The state of communities of color in the U.S. economy
Which students to serve? Universal or targeted eligibility for postsecondary opportunity programs
Meeting the challenge: The role of school leaders in turning around the lowest-performing high schools
Bridging the gaps to success: Promising practices for promoting transfer among low-income and first generation students: An in-depth study of six exemplary community colleges in Texas
Indiana's guide to paying for college: Step-by-step tips to help high school seniors apply for financial aid
This school works for me: Creating choices to boost student achievement: An implementation guide for school district administrators
This school works for me: Creating choices to boost student achievement: Supplement to the analysts' guide
High school policy reform: A plan for success (California)
Mind the (other) gap!: The growing excellence gap in k-12 education
Choice without equity: Charter school segregation and the need for civil rights standards
On the cusp in California: How PreK-3rd strategies could improve education in the Golden State
The past, present, and future of comprehensive school reform
Baccalaureate success of transfers and rising four-year college juniors
The economic benefits from halving the dropout rate: A boom to businesses in the nation's largest metropolitan areas
Expanded learning time by the numbers: The traditional school calendar is failing to meet many students' needs
State Higher Education Finance FY 2009
Promoting a culture of student success: How colleges and universities are improving degree completion
Indiana's Cash for College
Florida policy options to accelerate Latino student success in higher education
Beating the odds: Analysis of student performance on state assessments and NAEP: Results from the 2008-09 school year
Student debt 101
Special populations: Tips for completing the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA)
Indiana Growth Model Factsheet
Promoting a comprehensive approach to educational opportunity: A pilot inventory of education-related federal programs for children and youth
Engaging older youth: Program and city-level strategies to support sustained participation in out-of-school time
High school mentors in brief: Findings from the Big Brothers Big Sisters school-based mentoring impact study
Education Trust-West
Untapped potential: Early labor market outcomes of dropouts and graduates from Philadelphia's public schools
Unfulfilled promise: The dimensions and characteristics of Philadelphia's dropout crisis, 2000-2005
America's future: Latino child well-being in numbers and trends
Dual credit in Indiana: Bridging the gap between high school and college
A portrait of low-income young adults in education
Postsecondary success
Latinos and financial aid: Applying and receiving 2007-2008
Yes we can: The Schott state report on black males and education (national and state reports)
Postsecondary educational trajectories of urban youth: Addressing vulnerabilities and barriers to enrollment and persistence
The opportunity illusion: Subsidized housing and failing schools in California
Postsecondary education and training as we know it is not enough: Why we need to leaven postsecondary strategy with more attention to employment policy, social policy, and career and technical education in high school
Transforming the high school experience: How New York City's new small schools are boosting student achievement and graduation rates
Managing contracts for educational equity: Emerging trends and issues
Recruiting and retaining older African American and Hispanic boys in after-school programs: What we know and what we still need to learn
Becoming credit-wise: What students (and you!) should know
Back to basics: Improving college readiness of community college students
Beyond access: Explaining socioeconomic differences in college transfer
Beyond social justice: The threat of inequality to workforce development in the Western United States
The Benwood plan: A lesson in comprehensive teacher reform
United Negro College Fund (UNCF) Scholarships
Technical Minority Scholarship Program
How America pays for college: Sallie Mae's national study of college students and parents
Evaluating the impact of interventions that promote successful transitions from high school
Is college opportunity slipping away? Parents and the public voice concerns about higher education access and affordability
Pushing the envelope: State policy innovations in financing postsecondary education for workers who study
Creating change one step at a time: Efforts to improve college access and success in Indiana
Fulfilling the commitment: Recommendations for reforming federal student aid
Measuring up 2008
The effectiveness of student aid policies: What the research tells us
Making the dream a reality: Action steps for states to prepare all students for college and career
An overview of tax benefits for higher education expenses
Funding education beyond high school: The guide to federal student aid 2009-10
Accelerating Latino success at Texas border institutions: Possibilities and challenges
Essential elements of engagement: High expectations and high support
Critical conditions for equity and diversity in college access: Informing policy and monitoring results
Trends in student aid 2008
The economic impact of the achievement gap in America's schools
Noncognitive assessment and college success: The case of the Gates Millennium Scholars
Funding education beyond high school: The guide to federal student aid 2009-10 (Spanish language version)
Raising graduation rates: A series of data briefs: Progress toward increasing national and state graduation rates
Grade retention: Achievement and mental health outcomes
Action required: Addressing the nation's lowest performing high schools
The nation's report card: 2007 At a glance
Too small to help: The plight of financially distressed private student loan borrowers
Student Loan Borrower Assistance
State early commitment programs: A contract for college success?
Removing roadblocks to rigor: Linking academic and social supports to ensure college readiness and success
Getting with the program: Community college students need access to federal loans
From high school to the future: Making hard work pay off: The road to college for students in CPS's academically advanced programs
The schools teachers leave: Workforce mobility in Chicago public schools
Strategies to empower low-income and minority students in gaining admission to and paying for college
Measuring the Effectiveness of Student Assistance (MESA) -- Annual Report 2007
Factors affecting the use of student financial assistance by first nations youth
“Why access matters” revisited: A review of the latest research
Future to Discover: Early Implementation Report
Future to discover: Early implementation report -- Executive summary
State and community-based promise programs: Early commitments of financial aid for college
Work less, study more, & succeed: How financial supports can improve postsecondary success
A clear and present danger to institutional and student success: A training model for embedding student loan default aversion within strategic enrollment management
How America pays for college 2009: A national study by Gallup and Sallie Mae
Military service members and veterans in higher education: What the new GI Bill may mean for postsecondary institutions
The American high school graduation rate: Trends and levels
Achieving the Dream Data Notes: Academic outcomes of high risk students
Raising rigor, getting results: Lessons learned from AP expansion
How America saves for college 2009: Sallie Mae's national study of students and parents
Rethinking the middleman: Federal student loan guarantee agencies
Investing in Indiana's adult workers: Increasing financial aid opportunities
Lessons from Achieving the Dream for federal efforts to improve college completion rates
IDA Pays: Examining the potential of education IDAs
Latinos and education: Explaining the attainment gap
Report on student debt: Canadian college student survey and Canadian undergraduate survey consortium
Canadian college student finances: Third edition (2005)
A family affair: The impact of paying for college or university
The Millennium Bursary in British Columbia: Exploring its impact: Summary report (2004)
Why stop after high school?: A descriptive analysis of the most important reasons that high school graduates do not continue to PSE
No accounting for fairness: Equitable education funding remains elusive in Ohio
Hopes & hurdles: California foster youth and college financial aid
Canadian college student finances
Assessing Canada’s student aid need assessment policies
Report on the meta-analysis of post-secondary institutional graduate surveys
Canadian college student finances: Second edition
2009 What works for Latinos in higher education
Community colleges as gateway and gatekeeper: Moving beyond the access "saga" to outcome equity
Calculating cost-return for investments in students success
College readiness issue brief: High expectations: A key to success for all
A new diverse majority: Students of color in the South's public schools
Achieving the Dream Equity Resource Center
Re-imagining community colleges in the twenty-first century
Access and persistence: Fall 2009
Putting money on the table: Information, financial aid, and access to college
Providing effective financial aid assistance to students from foster care and unaccompanied homeless youth
What matters for staying on-track and graduating in Chicago public schools: A focus on students with disabilities
Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2009
The student aid gauntlet: Making access to college simple and certain
Do grants matter?
2003 status report on the Pell grant program
Lumina Foundation focus: Restricted access: The doors to higher education remain closed to many deserving students
Trends in student aid 2003
What's at stake? The social and economic benefits of higher education
Discounting toward disaster: Tuition discounting, college finances, and enrollments of low-income undergraduates
Improving lives through higher education: Campus programs and policies for low-income adults
Education as crime prevention: Reinstating Pell Grant eligibility for the incarcerated
A closer look at the President's proposal for changes in student assistance
Pathways to a four-year degree: Determinants of transfer and degree completion
In state tuition for undocumented immigrants
2003 Status report on the federal education loan programs
Student financing of undergraduate education: 1999-2000
Investing in America's future: Why student aid pays off for society and individuals
The funding gap 2004: Many states still shortchange low-income and minority students
Reframing the student loan costing debate: The benefits of competition
2003-04 National postsecondary student aid study: Undergraduate financial aid estimates for 2003-04 by type of institution
Educational attainment in the United States: 2003
The affordability of university education: A perspective from both sides of the 49th parallel
Educational needs index
Educational needs index state report: Indiana
State higher education finance: FY 2004
Income of U.S. workforce projected to decline if education doesn't improve
Confronting the graduation rate crisis in the south
Policy on dual credit courses taught in high schools by high school faculty
Add it up: Using research to improve education for low-income and minority students
Trends in student aid 2005
Critical postsecondary education issues in Indiana
Segal AmeriCorps Education Award
Measuring up 2006
Grants for students: What they do, why they work
Project on student debt.org
Characteristics of undergraduate borrowers: 1999-2000
Increasing success for underserved students: Redesigning introductory courses
School context, student attitudes and behavior, and student achievement: An exploratory analysis
Making college affordable: A work-book on financial aid, loans, and scholarships for college-bound students and their families
Making college affordable: A work-book on financial aid, loans, and scholarships for college-bound students and their families (Spanish version)
Perceptions of college financial aid among California Latino youth
Hispanic Scholarship Fund
Quick facts about student debt
Financial aid issues for students from low income families
Need versus merit: Focusing student financial aid for diversity
Indiana project on academic success: Retention Bibliography
Miles to go: Louisiana
Increasing the achievement of Native American youth at early college high schools
State tuition, fees, and financial assistance policies for public colleges and universities, 2005-06
American Indian college fund
Opening doors: Promoting student success in community college and beyond
Opening Doors project publications
Education a Tu Alcance (Spanish Version)
College Access: Indiana
Financing graduate education: A guide for prospective students
Education watch Indiana: Key education facts and figures 2006
States' progress toward high school restructuring
American Indian and Alaska Native students in U.S. high schools
Student loans and public accountability
Wrestling rising costs with innovation
Opportunity in America: The role of education
No Child Left Behind: State report card 2005-2006
Helping families finance college: Improved student loan disclosures and counseling
How much debt is too much? Definting benchmarks for manageable student debt
Immigration debate resources
Academic interventions to help states meet rigorous standards: Policy options
Repayment frequently asked questions
Latinos in undergraduate education
How outreach programs are implemented affects student achievement
Money on the table: State initiatives to improve financial aid participation
Qualified teachers for at-risk schools: A national imperative
Successful bilingual schools: Six effective programs in California
Ethnic Minority and Women's Enhancement Postgraduate Scholarship for careers in athletics
Closing educational achievement gaps for Latino/a students in Utah
Promoting a systematic focus on learning supports to address barriers to learning and teaching
Engaging students, challenging the odds
College grants on a postcard: A proposal for simple and predictable federal student aid
Orange juice or orange drink? Ensuring that "advanced courses" live up to their labels
Pre-K and Latinos: The foundation for America's future
Consolidation loans: Redesign options and considerations
Student loan forgiveness programs
Korean American Scholarship Foundation
Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program
Lloyd M. Johnson, Jr. Scholarship Program
Morris K. Udall Scholarship
National Action Council for Minorities in Engineering (NACME) Scholarships
The Paul & Daisy Soros Fellowships for New Americans
Ron Brown Scholar Program
Scholarships for Hispanics
Actuarial Scholarships for Minority Students
Association of American Indian Affairs (AAIA)
Out before the game begins: Hispanic leaders talk about what's needed to bring more Hispanic youngsters into science, technology and math professions
The status of Latinos/as in engineering: Confronting the "new" American dilemma
Graduation rate watch: Making minority student success a priority
Consortium on Chicago school research at the University of Chicago
How the borrowing process works
Reaching higher with accountability (working paper)
The credit crunch and student loans: Don't react before getting the facts
Course-taking patterns and preparation for postsecondary education in California's public university systems among minority youth
The growing imbalance: Recent trends in U.S. postsecondary education finance
Higher education: Tuition continues to rise, but patterns vary by institution type, enrollment, and educational expenditures
Strategic directions in Indiana education
Early intervention programs: Opening the doors to higher education
The turnaround challenge: Why America's best opportunity to dramatically improve student achievement lies in our worst-performing schools
The CollegeKeys Compact: Getting ready, getting in, and getting through college: Expanding options for low-income students
Historic reversals, accelerating resegregation and the need for new integration strategies
StateVoucher.org (Education and Training Vouchers)
2006-2007 National directory of scholarships, internships, and fellowships for Latino youth
Are teachers prepared for racially diverse schools? Teachers describe their preparation, resources, and practices for racially diverse schools
Indiana's adult education and workforce skills performance report: Preparing adults for a brighter future
The 4th annual AP report to the nation
EFC (Expected Family Contribution) Formula Guide, 2010-11
Low-income students and college success: More than money
Do loans increase college access and choice? Examining the introduction of universal student loans
2007-08 Directory of colleges cooperating with the SAT program fee-waiver service
A new majority: Low income students in the South's public schools
The narrowing gap in New York City teacher qualifications and its implications for student achievement in high-poverty schools
SREB states lead the nation in Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Programs
Student debt and the class of 2006
High school dropout: A quick stats fact sheet
Building a culture of evidence for community college student success: Early progress in the Achieving the Dream initiative
Community college fast facts